Paradox of Tribal Development: A Case of Gujars and Bakarwals of Jammu & Kashmir (India)
Umer Jan Sofi
Journal of Sociology and Social Work, 1(1), pp. 01-08.

The greatest challenge that the Government of India has been facing since independence is the proper provision of social justice to the scheduled tribes, by ameliorating their socioeconomic conditions. Scheduled tribes, scheduled castes and denotified tribes constitute the weakest section of India’s population, from the social, economic and educational angles. They constitute the matrix of India’s poverty. Development of tribal population has been a major concern of the nation builders, central and state governments, policy makers, nongovernment organizations, social scientists, social reformers etc. we have constitutional provisions for social, economic, educational, political, administrative, health and sanitational achievements of the tribal people of our nation. Since our independence various policies, strategies, approaches and models to tribal development have been conceived. From the very beginning of the 1st five years plan to the present 12th five years plan, a number of programmes of tribal development have been formulated and implement. Billions and billions of rupees have been spent in the name of tribal development. But most of the programmes have either failed or could not yield result up to the expectation. In this paper an attempt has been made to access and evaluate the impact of various developmental programmes on the socio-economic transformation of the transhumant tribals of Jammu & Kashmir. The study was conducted among the Gujjars and Bakarwals of district Anantnag. For this study data from both primary as well as secondary sources was used. The study reveals that inspite of the implementation of various policies and programmes for their development by the state and central governments, these tribals continue to live in pathetic conditions.

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Sofi, Jan Umer. (2013). Paradox of Tribal Development: A Case of Gujars and Bakarwals of Jammu & Kashmir (India). Journal of Sociology and Social Work, 1(1), pp. 01-08.

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Umer Jan Sofi is a Ph.D Research Fellow at Department of Sociology, Indira Gandhi National open University, New Delhi. After completing M.A in sociology from University of Kashmir, Srinagar in 2009, he went on to pursue Mphil. from Pondicherry University, Puducherry. Which he completed in 2011. He has qualified national eligibility test (NET) conducted by University Grants Commission in Dec. 2012 for teaching at college and university level. He has also qualified J&K state eligibility test (SET) in Sep. 2013 for teaching at higher education level. His research interests include- Tribal studies, social change, social exclusion of marginalized groups, gender studies etc. He has attended many national and international conferences and participated in various workshops and seminars. He also some national and international research publications to his credit